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Due to COVID-19 Restrictions we will not be having choir this year at Valley View.

Earth’s major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere (air), and the biosphere (living things, including humans). Within these systems, the location of Earth’s land and water can be described. Also, these systems interact in multiple ways. Weathering and erosion are examples of interactions between Earth’s systems. Some interactions cause landslides, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions that impact humans and other organisms. Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards, but solutions can be designed to reduce their impact.

„ Standard 5.1.1 Analyze and interpret data to describe patterns of Earth’s features.
Emphasize most earthquakes and volcanoes occur in bands that are
often along the boundaries between continents and oceans while major
mountain chains may be found inside continents or near their edges.

„ Standard 5.1.2 Use mathematics and computational thinking to compare the quantity
of saltwater and freshwater in various reservoirs to provide evidence for
the distribution of water on Earth. Emphasize reservoirs such as oceans,
lakes, rivers, glaciers, groundwater, and polar ice caps. (ESS2.C)

„ Standard 5.1.3 Ask questions to plan and carry out investigations that provide
evidence for the effects of weathering and the rate of erosion on the
geosphere. Emphasize weathering and erosion by water, ice, wind, gravity,
or vegetation.  (ESS2.A, ESS2.E)

„ Standard 5.1.4 Develop a model to describe interactions between Earth’s systems
including the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere.
Emphasize interactions between only two systems at a time. (ESS2.A)

„ Standard 5.1.5 Design solutions to reduce the effects of naturally occurring events
that impact humans. Define the problem, identify criteria and constraints,
develop possible solutions using models, analyze data from testing
solutions, and propose modifications for optimizing a solution. Emphasize
that humans cannot eliminate natural hazards, but they can take steps
to reduce their impacts. (ESS3.B, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)


All substances are composed of matter. Matter is made of particles that are too small to be seen but still exist and can be detected by other means. Substances have specific properties by which they can be identified. When two or more different substances are combined a new substance with different properties may be formed. Whether a change results in a new substance or not, the total amount of matter is always conserved. 

„ Standard 5.2.1 Develop and use a model to describe that matter is made of particles
on a scale that is too small to be seen. Emphasize making observations of
changes supported by a particle model of matter. (PS1.A)

„ Standard 5.2.2 Ask questions to plan and carry out investigations to identify
substances based on patterns of their properties. Emphasize using
properties to identify substances. (PS1.A)

„ Standard 5.2.3 Plan and carry out investigations to determine the effect of combining
two or more substances. Emphasize whether a new substance is or is not
created by the formation of a new substance with different properties.

„ Standard 5.2.4 Use mathematics and computational thinking to provide evidence that
regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or
combining substances, the total weight of matter is conserved. (PS1.A, PS1.B)


Matter cycles within ecosystems and can be traced from organism to organism. Plants use energy from the Sun to change air and water into matter needed for growth. Animals and decomposers consume matter for their life functions, continuing the cycling of  matter. Human behavior can affect the cycling of matter. Scientists and engineers design solutions to conserve Earth’s environments and resources.

„ Standard 5.3.1 Construct an explanation that plants use air, water, and energy
from sunlight to produce plant matter needed for growth. Emphasize
photosynthesis at a conceptual level and that plant matter comes mostly
from air and water, not from the soil. (LS1.C)

„ Standard 5.3.2 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information that animals obtain
energy and matter from the food they eat for body repair, growth, and
motion and to maintain body warmth. Emphasize that the energy used by
animals was once energy from the Sun. (PS3.D, LS1.C)

„ Standard 5.3.3 Develop and use a model to describe the movement of matter among
plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment. Emphasize that
matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and
microbes as these organisms live and die. (LS2.A, LS2.B)

„ Standard 5.3.4 Evaluate design solutions whose primary function is to conserve Earth’s
environments and resources. Define the problem, identify criteria and
constraints, analyze available data on proposed solutions, and determine
an optimal solution. Emphasize how humans can balance everyday needs
(agriculture, industry, and energy) while conserving Earth’s environments
and resources. (ESS3.A, ESS3.C, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)




The solar system consists of the Sun, planets, and other objects within Sun’s gravitational influence. Gravity is the force of attraction between masses. The Sun-Earth-Moon system provides an opportunity to study interactions between objects in the solar system that influence phenomena observed from Earth. Scientists use data from many sources to determine the scale and properties of objects in our solar system.

Standard 6.1.1 Develop and use a model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the Sun and Moon, and seasons.

Standard 6.1.2 Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity and inertia in orbital motions of objects in our solar system.

Standard 6.1.3 Use computational thinking to analyze data and determine the scale and properties of objects in the solar system. Types of data could include graphs, data tables, drawings, photographs, and models.


Matter and energy are fundamental components of the universe. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Transfer of energy creates change in matter. Changes between general states of matter can occur through the transfer of energy. Density describes how closely matter is packed together. Substances with a higher density have more matter in a given space than substances with a lower density. Changes in heat energy can alter the density of a material. Insulators resist the transfer of heat energy, while conductors easily transfer heat energy. These differences in energy flow can be used to design products to meet the needs of society.

Standard 6.2.1 Develop models to show that molecules are made of different kinds, proportions and quantities of atoms. Emphasize understanding that there are differences between atoms and molecules, and that certain combinations of atoms form specific molecules.

Standard 6.2.2 Develop a model to predict the effect of heat energy on states of matter and density. Emphasize the arrangement of particles in states of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) and during phase changes (melting, freezing, condensing, and evaporating).


Standard 6.2.3 Plan and carry out an investigation to determine the relationship between temperature, the amount of heat transferred, and the change of average particle motion in various types or amounts of matter. Emphasize recording and evaluating data, and communicating the results of the investigation.


Standard 6.2.4 Design an object, tool, or process that minimizes or maximizes heat energy transfer. Identify criteria and constraints, develop a prototype for iterative
testing, analyze data from testing, and propose modifications for optimizing the design solution. Emphasize demonstrating how the structure of differing materials allows them to function as either conductors or insulators.


All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet’s systems. Heat energy from the Sun, transmitted by radiation, is the primary source of energy that affects Earth’s weather and drives the water cycle. Uneven heating across Earth’s surface causes changes in density, which result in convection currents in water and air, creating patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional and global climates.

Standard 6.3.1 Develop a model to describe how the cycling of water through Earth’s systems is driven by energy from the Sun, gravitational forces, and density.

Standard 6.3.2 Investigate the interactions between air masses that cause changes in weather conditions. Collect and analyze weather data to provide evidence
for how air masses flow from regions of high pressure to low pressure causing a change in weather. 

Standard 6.3.3 Develop and use a model to show how unequal heating of the Earth’s systems causes patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates. Emphasize how warm water and air move from the equator toward the poles.

Standard 6.3.4 Construct an explanation supported by evidence for the role of the natural greenhouse effect in Earth’s energy balance, and how it enables life to exist on Earth. 


The study of ecosystems includes the interaction of organisms with each other and with the physical environment. Consistent interactions occur within and between species in various ecosystems as organisms obtain resources, change the environment, and are affected by the environment. This influences the flow of energy through an ecosystem, resulting in system variations. Additionally, ecosystems benefit humans through processes and resources, such as the production of food, water and air purification, and recreation opportunities. Scientists and engineers investigate interactions among organisms and evaluate design solutions to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem resources.

Standard 6.4.1 Analyze data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations in an ecosystem. Ask questions to predict how changes in resource availability affects organisms in those ecosystems.


Standard 6.4.2 Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. Emphasize consistent interactions in different environments, such as competition, predation, and mutualism.

Standard 6.4.3 Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. Emphasize food webs and the role of producers, consumers, and decomposers in various ecosystems.


Standard 6.4.4 Construct an argument supported by evidence that the stability of populations is affected by changes to an ecosystem. Emphasize how changes to living and nonliving components in an ecosystem affect populations in that ecosystem.


Standard 6.4.5 Evaluate competing design solutions for preserving ecosystem services that protect resources and biodiversity based on how well the solutions maintain stability within the ecosystem. Emphasize obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information of differing design solutions.

Through the study of organisms, inferences can be made about environments both past and  present. Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions for growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction. Animals use different sense receptors specialized for particular kinds of information to understand and respond to their environment. Some kinds of plants and animals that once lived on Earth can no longer be found. However, fossils from these organisms provide evidence about the  types of organisms that lived long ago and the nature of their environments. Additionally, the presence and location of certain fossil types indicate changes that have occurred in environments over time.

„ Standard 4.1.1 Construct an explanation from evidence that plants and animals
have internal and external structures that function to support survival,
growth, behavior, and reproduction. Emphasize how structures support
an organism’s survival in its environment and how internal and external
structures of plants and animals vary within the same and across multiple
Utah environments. (LS1.A)

„ Standard 4.1.2 Develop and use a model of a system to describe how animals receive
different types of information from their environment through their
senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the
information. Emphasize how animals are able to use their perceptions
and memories to guide their actions.  (LS1.D)

„ Standard 4.1.3 Analyze and interpret data from fossils to provide evidence of the
stability and change in organisms and environments from long ago.
Emphasize using the structures of fossils to make inferences about
ancient organisms. (LS4.A)

„ Standard 4.1.4 Engage in argument from evidence based on patterns in rock layers and
fossils found in those layers to support an explanation that environments
have changed over time. Emphasize the relationship between fossils and
past environments. (ESS1.C)


Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another causing the objects’ motions to change. Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electrical currents, heat, sound, or light. Devices can be designed to convert energy from one form to another.

„ Standard 4.2.1 Construct an explanation to describe the cause and effect relationship
between the speed of an object and the energy of that object. Emphasize
using qualitative descriptions of the relationship between speed and
energy like fast, slow, strong, or weak.  (PS3.A)

„ Standard 4.2.2 Ask questions and make observations about the changes in energy
that occur when objects collide. Emphasize that energy is transferred
when objects collide and may be converted to different forms of energy.
(PS3.B, PS3.C)

„ Standard 4.2.3 Plan and carry out an investigation to gather evidence from
observations that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound,
light, heat, and electrical currents. (PS3.A, PS3.B)

„ Standard 4.2.4 Design a device that converts energy from one form to another. Define
the problem, identify criteria and constraints, develop possible solutions using
models, analyze data from testing solutions, and propose modifications for
optimizing a solution. Emphasize identifying the initial and final forms of
energy. (PS3.B, PS3.D, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)


Waves are regular patterns of motion that transfer energy and have properties such as amplitude (height of the wave) and wavelength (spacing between wave peaks). Waves in water can be directly observed. Light waves cause objects to be seen when light reflected from objects enters the eye. Humans use waves and other patterns to transfer information.

„ Standard 4.3.1 Develop and use a model to describe the regular patterns of waves.
Emphasize patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength. (PS4.A)

„ Standard 4.3.2 Develop and use a model to describe how visible light waves reflected
from objects enter the eye causing objects to be seen. Emphasize the
reflection and movement of light. The structure and function of organs
and organ systems and the relationship between color and wavelength
will be taught in Grades 6 through 8. (PS4.B)

„ Standard 4.3.3 Design a solution to an information transfer problem using wave
patterns. Define the problem, identify criteria and constraints, develop
possible solutions using models, analyze data from testing solutions, and
propose modifications for optimizing a solution. (PS4.C, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)


The Sun is a star that appears larger and brighter than other stars because it is closer to Earth. The rotation of Earth on its axis and orbit of Earth around the Sun cause observable patterns. These include day and night; daily changes in the length and direction of shadows; and different positions of the Sun and stars at different times of the day, month, and year. 

„ Standard 4.4.1 Construct an explanation that differences in the apparent brightness of
the Sun compared to other stars is due to the relative distance (scale) of
stars from Earth. Emphasize relative distance from Earth. (ESS1.A)

„ Standard 4.4.2 Analyze and interpret data of observable patterns to show that Earth
rotates on its axis and revolves around the Sun. Emphasize patterns that
provide evidence of Earth’s rotation and orbits around the Sun. (ESS1.B)

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